‘Robotic skin’ turns everyday objects into robots

10th October 2018
Alex Lynn

Robots are typically built with a single purpose in mind. In contrast, new elastic sheets full of high-tech gear turn almost anything into useful robots. Robotics are usually something rigid, heavy, and built for a specific purpose. New ‘Robotic Skins’ technology developed by Yale researchers flips that notion on its head, allowing users to animate the inanimate and turn everyday objects into robots.

The robotic skins enable users to design their own robotic systems. Although the skins are designed with no specific task in mind, they could be used for everything from search-and-rescue robots to wearable technologies.

The skins are made from elastic sheets embedded with sensors and actuators. Placed on a deformable object, a stuffed animal or a foam tube, for instance, the skins animate these objects from their surfaces. The makeshift robots can perform different tasks depending on the properties of the soft objects and how the skins are applied.

The skins can be wrapped around one object to perform a task, locomotion, for example, and then take them off and put them on a different object to perform a different task, such as grasping and moving an object. You can also take those same skins off that object and put them on a shirt to make an active wearable device.

Robots are typically built with a single purpose in mind. The robotic skins, however, allow users to create multi-functional robots on the fly. That means they can be used in settings that hadn’t even been considered when they were designed.

Additionally, using more than one skin at a time allows for more complex movements. For instance, you can layer the skins to get different types of motion. Now the researchers can get combined modes of actuation, for example, simultaneous compression and bending.

To demonstrate the robotic skins in action, the researchers created a handful of prototypes. These include foam cylinders that move like an inchworm, a shirt-like wearable device designed to correct poor posture, and a device with a gripper that can grasp and move objects.

The researchers came up with the idea for the devices a few years ago when NASA put out a call for soft robotic systems. The technology was designed in partnership with NASA, and its multifunctional and reusable nature would allow astronauts to accomplish an array of tasks with the same reconfigurable material.

The same skins used to make a robotic arm out of a piece of foam could be removed and applied to create a soft Mars rover that can roll over rough terrain. With the robotic skins on board, the Yale scientist said, anything from balloons to balls of crumpled paper could potentially be made into a robot with a purpose.

One of the main things was the importance of multifunctionality, especially for deep space exploration where the environment is unpredictable. The question is: How do you prepare for the unknown unknowns?

Next, the lab will work on streamlining the devices and explore the possibility of 3D printing the components.

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